References and source for Helen Duncan: Britain’s Last Witch?

The article Helen Duncan: Britain’s Last Witch? was thoroughly researched to the best of my abilities.  Below you will find a list of sources that relate to the footnote numbers in the main article.  It is quite lengthy so required a post of its own.  Much of the information comes from the trial report itself and is therefore primary source material.  Others come from newspaper articles and websites dedicated to either Duncan, history, spiritualism or reporting.

References:

Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.

Tabori, P. (1961). The art of folly. Philadelphia: Chilton Co., Book Division.

Footnotes:

  1. Cartwright, K. (2010). A companion to Tudor literature. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell. Pp 32
  2. Gaskill, M. . (2004). Helen Duncan. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. [online] Available at: http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/66/101066217/ [Accessed 27 Jan. 2015].
  3. Price, H. (1933). Leaves from a psychist’s case-book. London: V. Gollancz.
  4. London Spiritualist Alliance had fifty sittings with her between October 1930 and June 1931; for these sittings she was stripped, searched and dressed in ‘seance garments’. Two interim reports in Light were favorable, a third a third found indications of fraud. Pieces of ‘ectoplasm’ found from time to time differed in composition. Two early specimens consisted of paper or cloth mixed with something like white of egg. Two others were pads of surgical gauze soaked in ‘a resinous fluid’; yet another consisted of layers of lavatory paper stuck together. The most usual material for ‘ectoplasm’ however, seemed to be butter muslin or cheesecloth, probably swallowed and regurgitated. Distressing choking noises were sometimes heard from within the cabinet; and it was interesting that when she was persuaded to swallow a tablet of methylene blue before one of the seances at the London Spiritualist Alliance, no ectoplasm whatsoever appeared. – Haynes. R. (1982.) The Society for Psychical Research 1882-1982: A History. MacDonald & Co. p. 144
  5. R. (1982.) The Society for Psychical Research 1882-1982: A History. MacDonald & Co. p. 144
  6. She was arrested for fraud and ordered to pay a £10 fine at Edinburgh Sheriff’s Court.” Herald Scotland, (2015). In 1944, Scottish grandmother Helen Duncan became the last person to be jailed under the Witchcraft Act. Now, more than 60 years later, she has become a martyr for spiritualists who are seeking to clear her name.. [online] Available at: http://bit.ly/1uw4w6t [Accessed 27 Jan. 2015].
  7. he carried out sittings with countless mediums” co.uk, (2015). HARRY PRICE Ghost-Hunter, Psychical Researcher & Author – Dedicated Website – harrypricewebsite.co.uk. [online] Available at: http://www.harrypricewebsite.co.uk/ [Accessed 27 Jan. 2015].
  8. It was as if some intuition of his impending death caused him to want to believe in the permanence of the spirit and his antics in faking phenomena and evidence seemed to be self-deluding as much as financial gainco.uk, (2015). The Harry Price Website – Harry Price by Andrew Clarke. [online] Available at: http://www.harrypricewebsite.co.uk/Biography/pricebyclarke.htm [Accessed 27 Jan. 2015].
  9. Tabori, P. (1961). The art of folly. Philadelphia: Chilton Co., Book Division.
  10. These types of talking boards became very popular, and in 1890, Elijah Bond, Charles Kennard and William H.A. Maupin had the idea to turn the board into a toy.” Mental Floss, (2015). A Brief History of the Ouija Board. [online] Available at: http://mentalfloss.com/article/12952/brief-history-ouija-board [Accessed 27 Jan. 2015].
  11. This time her wardrobe of props apparently included a hatband with the words HMS Barham.” gillespie, a. (2015). HMS Barham Association. [online] Hmsbarham.com. Available at: http://www.hmsbarham.com/ship/helenduncan.php [Accessed 27 Jan. 2015].
  12. After the Barham incident the authorities became alarmed and feared she would reveal the beaches chosen for the D-Day landings, and the was detained.” (authors note: this is a constant claim, though there seems little to support it) gillespie, a. (2015). HMS Barham Association. [online] Hmsbarham.com. Available at: http://www.hmsbarham.com/ship/helenduncan.php [Accessed 27 Jan. 2015].
  13. There was no shroud of secrecy; The Times of London carried news of the disaster on the Monday.” Graeme Donald. (2009). Loose Cannons: 101 Things They Never Told You About Military History. Osprey Publishing. p. 48
  14. letters of condolence were sent out to families of the 861 dead, asking them to keep the secret until the official announcement.” Graeme Donald. (2009). Loose Cannons: 101 Things They Never Told You About Military History. Osprey Publishing. p. 48
  15. Image of WW2 British sailor: http://www.hmsbarham.com/images/lost/denishyndman1.jpg
  16. Alleged Séance deceptions. Further evidence for the prosecution.” in The Times (25 March 1944)
  17. “In the first count that between the 1st December, 1943, and the 19th January, 1944, you conspired together and with other persons unknown” Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  18. In 1736 Parliament passed an Act repealing the laws against witchcraft, but imposing fines or imprisonment on people who claimed to be able to use magical powers.” UK Parliament,. ‘Witchcraft’. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Mar. 2015.
  19. In the second count you are all four charged that on the 19th January of this year you pretended to exercise or use a kind of conjuration, namely, that spirits of deceased persons should be present in fact in the place where Helen Duncan then was, contrary to section 4 of The Witchcraft Act, 1735. In the third count you are charged that upon the same day, 19th January of this year, you with intent to defraud caused Stanley Raymond Worth to pay 25s. to Ernest Homer (that is, the said Ernest Edward Hartland Homer) for the use or benefit of yourselves by false pretences, the pretence being that you were then in a position to bring about the appearance of the spirits of deceased persons and that you then bona fide intended so to do without trickery. In the fourth count you are charged with a similar offence upon the 19th January of this year in respect of causing Bessie Lock to pay 7s. to Ernest Homer or the use or benefit of yourselves upon the same false pretences with intent to defraud. In the last three counts you are charged with effecting a public mischief, in each count upon the following dates respectively, namely, the 14th day of January, the 17th day of January, and the 19th day of January of this year, the particulars being that you effected that public mischief by holding a meeting to which His Majesty’s liege subjects were admitted on payment, and at which meeting “the said Helen Duncan pro- fessed that the spirit of a deceased person was in fact present and visible through her agency.” Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  20. “In the case of Mrs. Duncan, she has made the most out of this, and the sentence of the Court upon her is that she be imprisoned for nine months” Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  21. “Helen Duncan, Ernest Edward Hartland Homer, Elizabeth Anne Jones, and Frances Brown, you four are charged upon an indictment which contains seven counts.” Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  22. “In those circumstances you will both be bound over to be of good behaviour for a period of two years in your own recognizances in the sum of 5, which means you will hear no more about this if you behave your- selves and keep out of trouble; otherwise consequences are apt to follow, you understand.” Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  23. “MR. LOSEBY : Might I ask your Lordship if your Lordship would think it right to remind the jury that, as far as Mrs. Duncan was concerned, I offered her for cross-examination only, at the same time as I asked for the test. I made that quite plain to my learned friend, and I hoped I had to your Lordship. I did use the phrase “for cross-examination only”, if my friend cared to take it/  THE RECORDER: Yes, quite right; you did, but you must call her as a witness. I asked you if you were putting her in the box for the purpose of giving evidence and you said no. It was a matter for you; you could either call her for the purpose of giving evidence in chief, or for the purpose of cross-examination. It was a matter entirely for you.” Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  24. Numerous references to various witnesses outlined in the introduction to the book The Trial of Mrs Duncan: Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  25. If not for her, that law might not have been repealed the Witchcraft Act was replaced with the Fraudulent Mediums Act in 1951” Phelan, Stephan. Herald Scotland. N.p., 2008. Web. 14 Mar. 2015. Access via: http://www.heraldscotland.com/cm/2.375/in-1944-scottish-grandmother-helen-duncan-became-the-last-person-to-be-jailed-under-the-witchcraft-act-now-more-than-60-years-later-she-has-become-a-martyr-for-spiritualists-who-are-seeking-to-clear-her-name-1.836732
  26. In the first two counts of this indictment you will find that the Witchcraft Act has been used; it is an old Act, it is two hundred years old, a little more, but, although sometimes the law is thought to be foolish, sometimes it is not quite such an ass as everybody in invited to think, and in this particular case the Act has remained in the Statute Book untouched since the reign of George II, and you may think for a very good reason indeed.” Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  27. Helen Duncan was released from prison on the 22 September 1944 and seems to have avoided further trouble until November 1956, when the police raided a private séance in Nottingham on suspicion of fraudulent activity. No charges were brought…” BBC,. ‘Scotland’s Last Witch’. N.p., 2014. Web. 14 Mar. 2015. Accessible via http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/modern/oddities_modern.shtml
  28. They also suspect that she was killed by psychic injuries inflicted during a police raid on a seance more than 10 years after her release.” Phelan, Stephan. Herald Scotland. N.p., 2008. Web. 14 Mar. 2015. See also: “I can see this death was caused by internal bleeding and psychic burns” via http://psychictruth.info/Medium_Helen_Duncan.htm
  29. “I have always known since I made her acquaintance that she has had sugar diabetes, for one thing, and since then she has developed angina pectoris and this valvular disease of the heart. It was only at this last meeting that I noticed her heart was so bad.” Duncan, V., Roberts, C. and Normanton, H. (1945). The trial of Mrs. Duncan. London: Jarrolds.
  30. “Mr Hewitt, who is also assistant General Secretary of the Spiritualists National Union, said: “The Criminal Cases Review Commission wouldn’t reopen the case as they said it wasn’t in the public interest. “But, we have to continue the battle and believe there’s a strong enough case to clear her name.”” BBC,. ‘Britain’s ‘Last Witch’: Campaign To Pardon Helen Duncan’. N.p., 2012. Web. 14 Mar. 2015. accessible via http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-18456106
  31. The conclusion can only be that Helen Duncan was NOT convicted of being a Fraud instead she was imprisoned because her sources told The Truth” Hewitt, Graham. ‘The Campaign’. org. Web. 14 Mar. 2015.
  32. “He applies the same logic to the popular myth that Churchill visited Helen Duncan for psychic consultations in her cell at Holloway Prison. “Generally speaking, you can’t prove a negative,” says Malcolm Gaskill” Phelan, Stephan. Herald Scotland. N.p., 2008. Web. 14 Mar. 2015.
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